What's the most toxic chemical?

Interesting.  Again, plenty of candidates but the most toxic chemical is basically a natural product. There are some chemicals which were made in the lab which can be very tricky but the most toxic according to some scales is the botulinum toxin which is funnily enough used in Botox. But there is a particular scale which is used and it is a lethal dosage that kills 50 percent of subjects. And this is in the case of botulinum toxin, 1 nanogram per kg. That means that you need very low amounts to cause really toxic effects. So it's kind of you know it is a little bit ironic that you can basically use it also in cosmetics today. When we think about synthetic compounds, there are some neurotoxins that have been made. And you know when Haydn was talking about some dangerous stuff and some risks so there may have been lots of chemicals that have been made that are extremely toxic. One of the most toxic ones is the chemical called VX. It's a synthetic poison, a nerve agent. So it basically inhibits signaling between denounced it will cause lots of muscle convulsions and heart attack and it will really kill people instantaneously. It's still less toxic than botulinum. So you would need around three micrograms of this compound to kill the person which means nature has made the most toxic ones.

Spotlight

Harcros Chemicals

For nearly a century, Harcros Chemicals has been delivering quality products from hundreds of manufacturers to thousands of customers. An independently owned, U.S.-based company representing many of the top producers in the chemical industry, Harcros has developed strong, long-term relationships with our vendors to assure our customers of a dependable source of supply. Additionally, we market the Harcros Organics line of specialty chemicals, with a manufacturing plant located in Kansas City. While we do supply product nationwide, our 28 distribution centers are geographically spread to provide excellent coverage of the U.S. east of the Rocky Mountains. All sites are served by a single business system for order management, finance, and communication, allowing optimum service efficiency. The Harcros delivery fleet of over 200 vehicles includes trucks, van and tank trailers, and special equipment for safe delivery of a number of products. Collectively, our facilities have over one million

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Chemical Technology

Future-Proofing the Chemical Industry with Digitalization

Article | July 14, 2022

Over the next five to seven years, the chemical sector will place a greater emphasis on sustainability, and digitization will play a significant part in this. Reducing resource use, pollution, energy consumption, and waste are some of its main applications. Additionally, it will increase demand for a circular economy supported by IoT, AI, and other digital technologies. Some of the systems now in place or being used in the sector include autonomous solutions that enable lower energy usage, dispatching systems for effective logistics and strategies for sustainable power and fuel consumption. Chemical players making the switch to digital platforms have a chance to triumph if they move swiftly and update their operational models in accordance with a few common success characteristics. In fact, according to our study, making the correct decisions can increase total earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization by 3 percent or more (EBITDA). The Next Step of Operational Excellence The same level of transformation is available with digital technology for optimal performance, together with success-enabling measures. The same level of corporate participation and realignment will also be necessary for the effective implementation of digital technology. Finance and telecoms were early leaders in adopting digital technology faster than the chemical sector, which has just recently started to move in more significant numbers toward digitalization. A circular economy in the sector is also being enabled by the use and evaluation of digital technology. The "Right to Fix" movement is being driven by governments and legislators in Europe and the US, and small and medium-sized businesses in the industry are expected to invest in technology that makes it easier to repair electronic items with the least amount of waste. On a side note, by enabling the re-use of resources and products throughout the supply chain, digitalization with lean manufacturing (LM) would enable businesses to improve operational excellence and create value, thereby supporting the circular economy goal. Conclusion Given its extensive safety and regulatory requirements, the chemical sector has evolved slowly. However, as the global economy changes, some skills will become obsolete and others essential. The interconnectedness of people, processes, and technology, as well as the requirement for real-time insight at the levels closest to the action, are among the basic principles of Industry 4.0. These values have existed for some time and are an extension of our teams' current operational excellence initiatives. Digital transformation is not a technology endpoint but rather the following stage in the process and business evolution as the chemicals industry advances continuously.

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Chemical Management

Petrochemical buyers, after a very difficult pandemic, can gain from China-driven deflation

Article | July 13, 2021

BUYERS OF polypropylene (PP) and other polymers and petrochemicals have had an incredibly difficult pandemic. Firstly, the converters and brand owners expected doom and gloom last March. At the time it seemed logical to expect a cratering of demand as the global economy pretty much imploded. Just looking at forecasts for GDP, parallels were drawn with the Global Financial Crisis when collapses in growth led to a cratering of polymers demand. The US is a good example where PP demand declined by 12% in 2008 over 2007. Demand then fell by a further 5% in 2009 over 2008.But what we all missed was the complete dislocation of polymers and petrochemicals demand from GDP. As economies registered historic declines, consumption went up. PP demand went through the roof, firstly for food packaging and hygiene applications.Then consumption for the durable goods made from PP also smashed through the rafters as we bought white goods (PP is used to make components of washing machines), consumer electronics (PP is used to make some electronic components) and carpets (PP fibres are used here).

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Chemical Technology

Resin and Polymeric Binders for Inks

Article | July 20, 2022

The market size for polymeric and resin binders in the global printing ink marketwas estimated to be over 1,200,000 MT in 2020, with a CAGR of about five percent. A major driver of this growth comes from the packaging industry, due to increases in consumer spending and online shopping, as well as demand for processed and packaged foods and beverages. In addition, increased use of water-based inks is promoting market growth, off-setting environmental and health concerns regarding solvent-based inks in addition to strict environmental protection policies. Water-based inks are projected to overtake solvent-based inks due to environmental regulations, the reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the pressroom, and improvements in overall print quality. Ink formulations are complex mixtures, consisting of four basic component classes: pigments, polymeric binder resins, solvents or an aqueous dispersant media, and additives, such as surfactants, waxes, and rheology modifiers that enhance print quality. The purpose of the resin binder is to disperse and carry the ink pigment to the substrate, stabilize the pigment and additives dispersion to prevent settling, and provide print properties such as ink transfer behavior, setting, and drying characteristics. The binder also contributes surface appearance and gloss, strength and flexibility, chemical and solvent resistance, and also rub resistance. Ink binders can be categorized into the following polymer and resin types: acrylics, polyurethanes, polyamides, modified resins, hydrocarbon resins, and modified cellulosics.

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Chemical Management

The multi-million dollar polymers opportunity: continued big regional price differentials

Article | June 29, 2021

POLYMER BUYERS outside northeast (NEA) and southeast Asia (SEA) have a big opportunity to save millions of dollars on procurement costs during the rest of this year through purchasing more from the two regions.The opportunity has arisen because I believe that NEA and SEA polymer prices will remain very cheap relative to most of the world until at least the end of 2021. NEA comprises China, Japan, Taiwan and South Korea. Our definition of the SEA region is Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.NEA and SEA producers can also make a lot of money by constantly monitoring and acting on strong arbitrage opportunities in other regions. As supply disruptions in the US look likely to continue, Europe and South & Central America seem particularly good opportunities for both buyers and producers.Before we discuss why I see NEA and SEA remaining cheap relative to most of the rest of the world until at least the end of the year, let us consider in more detail the size of the prize, starting with the resin buyers.

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Spotlight

Harcros Chemicals

For nearly a century, Harcros Chemicals has been delivering quality products from hundreds of manufacturers to thousands of customers. An independently owned, U.S.-based company representing many of the top producers in the chemical industry, Harcros has developed strong, long-term relationships with our vendors to assure our customers of a dependable source of supply. Additionally, we market the Harcros Organics line of specialty chemicals, with a manufacturing plant located in Kansas City. While we do supply product nationwide, our 28 distribution centers are geographically spread to provide excellent coverage of the U.S. east of the Rocky Mountains. All sites are served by a single business system for order management, finance, and communication, allowing optimum service efficiency. The Harcros delivery fleet of over 200 vehicles includes trucks, van and tank trailers, and special equipment for safe delivery of a number of products. Collectively, our facilities have over one million

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Chemical Technology

Collaboration is “the name of the game” to build resilience, say speakers at 12th GPCA Supply Chain Conference

Gulf Petrochemicals & Chemicals Association | June 04, 2021

The virtual conference was held on 26-27 May, attracting over 1300 attendees from 450 companies in 62 countries Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 31 May 2021 – The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic of the last 15 months has demonstrated the acute importance of collaboration to build more agile, resilient, and responsive supply chains, said industry leaders at the 12th Gulf Petrochemicals and Chemicals Association (GPCA) Supply Chain Conference held virtually on 26-27 May. Senior executives from across the chemical and petrochemical value chain, logistics service providers and shipping operators urged industry leaders to capitalize on the lessons learned during the pandemic and act upon them in the future – from collaborating more closely with the regulators, their customers, and strategic partners, to driving better supply chain visibility, investing in digitalization, building their workforce capabilities, and focusing on supply chain sustainability. In his keynote address, Hamad Alterkait, Chairman of the Kuwait based company, PIC, encouraged chemical leaders to engage in supply chain collaboration even with their competitors and keep their inventory in close customer proximity to improve their reliability and better serve their end markets. He told attendees at the virtual event: “Regional chemical producers must diversify their supply base even if it means incurring higher costs in order to cushion the impact from any future crisis. Companies must also explore out of the box supply chain solutions, using different scenarios, which may aid in addressing important challenges at a critical time.” Echoing Alterkait’s remarks on the importance of collaboration were Hosam Al-Zamil, VP, Global Supply Chain, SABIC; Ahmed Abdulla Al-Salahi, CCO, Q-Chem; and Ahmed Al-Katheeri, SVP - Supply Chain Management, Borouge, in the conference’s inaugural panel on the future of chemical supply chains. The COVID-19 pandemic was a test to chemical supply chains’ resilience, as it demonstrated that the world is one global community, panelists said. “The future will not be the moving of our products; it will be the moving of data which will help enable responsiveness and agility and drive customer centricity to stay competitive. However, we cannot achieve this by working in silos. The chemical industry is just one part of the supply chain and we must work together to build a more resilient future,” Al-Katheeri added. A recent GPCA survey confirms the insights shared by speakers. It found that chemical supply chain and operations have been the single most impacted business function within downstream organizations in the GCC in the past 15 months as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. In the path to recovery, chemical companies must focus on supply chain digitalization, sustainability, trade facilitation and regulatory engagement. Within these trends, carbon neutrality, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) will be the key segments to focus on and drive the highest impact on businesses’ supply chains today, the survey found. Dr. Abdulwahab Al-Sadoun, Secretary General, GPCA, commented, “I was pleased to welcome the regional and global chemical industry to the virtual edition of the 12th GPCA Supply Chain Conference last week and gain first-hand insight into the challenges associated with the pandemic on their chemical supply chain and operations. The audience was left with a message of positivity on what’s to come next and provided with a range of practical tips on how to address the uncertainty and any new crisis in the future. I hope delegates enjoyed attending the event and thank all our sponsors and partners for making this edition possible.” The 12th GPCA Supply Chain Conference was held under the theme ‘Powering a resilient, responsive and agile supply chain’, attracting over 1300 attendees from 450 companies in 62 countries. To learn more, visit www.gpcasupplychain.com About the Gulf Petrochemicals & Chemicals Association The Gulf Petrochemicals and Chemicals Association (GPCA) was established in 2006 to represent the downstream hydrocarbon industry in the Arabian Gulf. Today, the association voices the common interests of more than 250 member companies from the chemical and allied industries, accounting for over 95 percent of chemical output in the GCC. The industry makes up the second largest manufacturing sector in the region, producing over USD 108 billion worth of products every year. GPCA supports the petrochemical and chemical industry in the Arabian Gulf through advocacy, networking and thought leadership initiatives aimed at helping member companies to connect, share and advance knowledge, contribute to international dialogue, and become prime influencers in shaping the future of the global petrochemicals industry. Committed to providing a regional platform for stakeholders from around the world, GPCA manages six working committees – Plastics, Supply Chain, Fertilizers, International Trade, Research and Innovation, and Responsible Care – and organizes six world-class events each year. The association also publishes an annual report, regular newsletters and various other industry reports. For more information, visit www.gpca.org.ae. Contact: Slavka Atanasova Gulf Petrochemicals and Chemicals Association P. O. Box 123055, Dubai, United Arab Emirates T: + 44 7561 525126 E: slavka@gpca.org.ae or Hector Aquino hector@gpca.org.ae

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Chemical Technology

Enowa Partners with SAP to bring Perspective to the SAP Chemical Community

Enowa | February 19, 2021

Enowa, LLC is pleased to announce the partnership with SAP in the second edition of 2021 Partner Stage to bring viewpoint to the SAP Chemical Community. Enowa is active in the Chemical Industry, notably driving numerous business and S/4HANA changes and utilizing measure mining devices to help their S/4HANA excursion. In the new interview with Rick Place, Partner at Enowa and SAP's Solution Specialist for the Chemical Industry Business Unit, Matthew Reymann, Rick answered how Enowa effectively drives changes and features the significance of the SAP accomplice environment for the achievement of the Chemical Industry. Rick Place expresses the first concerns for the Chemical Industry is the requirement for speed in real data at real time, or near it. Further, Rick shares how coming from the beginning phases of monetary vulnerability and how that affects Mergers, Acquisitions and Divestitures – to largely extent driven by Enowa's Private Equity network. To achieve success, Enowa specialists are driving outcomes on these topics, a subset of our full competencies: About Enowa Enowa is a global, mid-sized SAP Gold Services partner established in nearly 20 years ago with a dedicated focus on business process and SAP consulting. About SAP A top cloud company with 200 million users worldwide, SAP helps businesses of all sizes and in all industries to operate profitably, adapt continuously, and achieve their purpose.

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Chemical Management

Huntsman Completes the Acquisition of Gabriel Performance Products, Further Expanding its Specialty Chemicals Portfolio

Huntsman | January 20, 2021

Huntsman Corporation (NYSE: HUN) today announced it completed the acquisition of Gabriel Performance Products (Gabriel), a North American specialty chemical manufacturer of specialty additives and epoxy curing agents for the coatings, adhesives, sealants and composite end-markets, from Audax Private Equity. Huntsman paid $250 million, subject to customary closing adjustments, in an all-cash transaction funded from available liquidity. Gabriel had 2019 revenues of approximately $106 million with three manufacturing facilities located in Ashtabula, Ohio, Harrison City, Pennsylvania and Rock Hill, South Carolina. Based on calendar year 2019, the purchase price represents an adjusted EBITDA multiple of approximately 11 times, or approximately 8 times pro forma for synergies. Huntsman Corporation is a publicly traded global manufacturer and marketer of differentiated and specialty chemicals with 2019 revenues of approximately $7 billion. Our chemical products number in the thousands and are sold worldwide to manufacturers serving a broad and diverse range of consumer and industrial end markets. We operate more than 70 manufacturing, R&D and operations facilities in approximately 30 countries and employ approximately 9,000 associates within our four distinct business divisions. Certain information in this release constitutes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. These statements are based on management's current beliefs and expectations. The forward-looking statements in this release are subject to uncertainty and changes in circumstances and involve risks and uncertainties that may affect the company's operations, markets, products, services, prices and other factors as discussed under the caption "Risk Factors" in the Huntsman companies' filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Significant risks and uncertainties may relate to, but are not limited to, volatile global economic conditions, cyclical and volatile product markets, disruptions in production at manufacturing facilities, reorganization or restructuring of Huntsman's operations, including any delay of, or other negative developments affecting the ability to implement cost reductions, timing of proposed transactions, and manufacturing optimization improvements in Huntsman businesses and realize anticipated cost savings, ability to achieve projected synergies, and other financial, economic, competitive, environmental, political, legal, regulatory and technological factors. The company assumes no obligation to provide revisions to any forward-looking statements should circumstances change, except as otherwise required by applicable laws.

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Chemical Technology

Collaboration is “the name of the game” to build resilience, say speakers at 12th GPCA Supply Chain Conference

Gulf Petrochemicals & Chemicals Association | June 04, 2021

The virtual conference was held on 26-27 May, attracting over 1300 attendees from 450 companies in 62 countries Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 31 May 2021 – The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic of the last 15 months has demonstrated the acute importance of collaboration to build more agile, resilient, and responsive supply chains, said industry leaders at the 12th Gulf Petrochemicals and Chemicals Association (GPCA) Supply Chain Conference held virtually on 26-27 May. Senior executives from across the chemical and petrochemical value chain, logistics service providers and shipping operators urged industry leaders to capitalize on the lessons learned during the pandemic and act upon them in the future – from collaborating more closely with the regulators, their customers, and strategic partners, to driving better supply chain visibility, investing in digitalization, building their workforce capabilities, and focusing on supply chain sustainability. In his keynote address, Hamad Alterkait, Chairman of the Kuwait based company, PIC, encouraged chemical leaders to engage in supply chain collaboration even with their competitors and keep their inventory in close customer proximity to improve their reliability and better serve their end markets. He told attendees at the virtual event: “Regional chemical producers must diversify their supply base even if it means incurring higher costs in order to cushion the impact from any future crisis. Companies must also explore out of the box supply chain solutions, using different scenarios, which may aid in addressing important challenges at a critical time.” Echoing Alterkait’s remarks on the importance of collaboration were Hosam Al-Zamil, VP, Global Supply Chain, SABIC; Ahmed Abdulla Al-Salahi, CCO, Q-Chem; and Ahmed Al-Katheeri, SVP - Supply Chain Management, Borouge, in the conference’s inaugural panel on the future of chemical supply chains. The COVID-19 pandemic was a test to chemical supply chains’ resilience, as it demonstrated that the world is one global community, panelists said. “The future will not be the moving of our products; it will be the moving of data which will help enable responsiveness and agility and drive customer centricity to stay competitive. However, we cannot achieve this by working in silos. The chemical industry is just one part of the supply chain and we must work together to build a more resilient future,” Al-Katheeri added. A recent GPCA survey confirms the insights shared by speakers. It found that chemical supply chain and operations have been the single most impacted business function within downstream organizations in the GCC in the past 15 months as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. In the path to recovery, chemical companies must focus on supply chain digitalization, sustainability, trade facilitation and regulatory engagement. Within these trends, carbon neutrality, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) will be the key segments to focus on and drive the highest impact on businesses’ supply chains today, the survey found. Dr. Abdulwahab Al-Sadoun, Secretary General, GPCA, commented, “I was pleased to welcome the regional and global chemical industry to the virtual edition of the 12th GPCA Supply Chain Conference last week and gain first-hand insight into the challenges associated with the pandemic on their chemical supply chain and operations. The audience was left with a message of positivity on what’s to come next and provided with a range of practical tips on how to address the uncertainty and any new crisis in the future. I hope delegates enjoyed attending the event and thank all our sponsors and partners for making this edition possible.” The 12th GPCA Supply Chain Conference was held under the theme ‘Powering a resilient, responsive and agile supply chain’, attracting over 1300 attendees from 450 companies in 62 countries. To learn more, visit www.gpcasupplychain.com About the Gulf Petrochemicals & Chemicals Association The Gulf Petrochemicals and Chemicals Association (GPCA) was established in 2006 to represent the downstream hydrocarbon industry in the Arabian Gulf. Today, the association voices the common interests of more than 250 member companies from the chemical and allied industries, accounting for over 95 percent of chemical output in the GCC. The industry makes up the second largest manufacturing sector in the region, producing over USD 108 billion worth of products every year. GPCA supports the petrochemical and chemical industry in the Arabian Gulf through advocacy, networking and thought leadership initiatives aimed at helping member companies to connect, share and advance knowledge, contribute to international dialogue, and become prime influencers in shaping the future of the global petrochemicals industry. Committed to providing a regional platform for stakeholders from around the world, GPCA manages six working committees – Plastics, Supply Chain, Fertilizers, International Trade, Research and Innovation, and Responsible Care – and organizes six world-class events each year. The association also publishes an annual report, regular newsletters and various other industry reports. For more information, visit www.gpca.org.ae. Contact: Slavka Atanasova Gulf Petrochemicals and Chemicals Association P. O. Box 123055, Dubai, United Arab Emirates T: + 44 7561 525126 E: slavka@gpca.org.ae or Hector Aquino hector@gpca.org.ae

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Chemical Technology

Enowa Partners with SAP to bring Perspective to the SAP Chemical Community

Enowa | February 19, 2021

Enowa, LLC is pleased to announce the partnership with SAP in the second edition of 2021 Partner Stage to bring viewpoint to the SAP Chemical Community. Enowa is active in the Chemical Industry, notably driving numerous business and S/4HANA changes and utilizing measure mining devices to help their S/4HANA excursion. In the new interview with Rick Place, Partner at Enowa and SAP's Solution Specialist for the Chemical Industry Business Unit, Matthew Reymann, Rick answered how Enowa effectively drives changes and features the significance of the SAP accomplice environment for the achievement of the Chemical Industry. Rick Place expresses the first concerns for the Chemical Industry is the requirement for speed in real data at real time, or near it. Further, Rick shares how coming from the beginning phases of monetary vulnerability and how that affects Mergers, Acquisitions and Divestitures – to largely extent driven by Enowa's Private Equity network. To achieve success, Enowa specialists are driving outcomes on these topics, a subset of our full competencies: About Enowa Enowa is a global, mid-sized SAP Gold Services partner established in nearly 20 years ago with a dedicated focus on business process and SAP consulting. About SAP A top cloud company with 200 million users worldwide, SAP helps businesses of all sizes and in all industries to operate profitably, adapt continuously, and achieve their purpose.

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Chemical Management

Huntsman Completes the Acquisition of Gabriel Performance Products, Further Expanding its Specialty Chemicals Portfolio

Huntsman | January 20, 2021

Huntsman Corporation (NYSE: HUN) today announced it completed the acquisition of Gabriel Performance Products (Gabriel), a North American specialty chemical manufacturer of specialty additives and epoxy curing agents for the coatings, adhesives, sealants and composite end-markets, from Audax Private Equity. Huntsman paid $250 million, subject to customary closing adjustments, in an all-cash transaction funded from available liquidity. Gabriel had 2019 revenues of approximately $106 million with three manufacturing facilities located in Ashtabula, Ohio, Harrison City, Pennsylvania and Rock Hill, South Carolina. Based on calendar year 2019, the purchase price represents an adjusted EBITDA multiple of approximately 11 times, or approximately 8 times pro forma for synergies. Huntsman Corporation is a publicly traded global manufacturer and marketer of differentiated and specialty chemicals with 2019 revenues of approximately $7 billion. Our chemical products number in the thousands and are sold worldwide to manufacturers serving a broad and diverse range of consumer and industrial end markets. We operate more than 70 manufacturing, R&D and operations facilities in approximately 30 countries and employ approximately 9,000 associates within our four distinct business divisions. Certain information in this release constitutes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. These statements are based on management's current beliefs and expectations. The forward-looking statements in this release are subject to uncertainty and changes in circumstances and involve risks and uncertainties that may affect the company's operations, markets, products, services, prices and other factors as discussed under the caption "Risk Factors" in the Huntsman companies' filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Significant risks and uncertainties may relate to, but are not limited to, volatile global economic conditions, cyclical and volatile product markets, disruptions in production at manufacturing facilities, reorganization or restructuring of Huntsman's operations, including any delay of, or other negative developments affecting the ability to implement cost reductions, timing of proposed transactions, and manufacturing optimization improvements in Huntsman businesses and realize anticipated cost savings, ability to achieve projected synergies, and other financial, economic, competitive, environmental, political, legal, regulatory and technological factors. The company assumes no obligation to provide revisions to any forward-looking statements should circumstances change, except as otherwise required by applicable laws.

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