Chemical agents and related occupations

| December 16, 2018

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The Preamble to the IARC Monographs describes the objective and scope of the programme, the scientific principles and procedures used in developing a Monograph, the types of evidence considered and the scientific criteria that guide the evaluations. The Preamble should be consulted when reading a Monograph or list of evaluations.

Spotlight

REQUIMTE- Department of Chemistry

REQUIMTE, is the largest network in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering established in Portugal and is recognized as the Laboratório Associado para a Química Verde by the Portuguese Ministério da Ciência e do Ensino Superior since November 2001. The scientific expertise and complementary knowledge available, put together by the two research centres that form the network (Centro de Química Fina e Biotecnologia-UNL and Centro de Química-UP).

OTHER ARTICLES

6 APPLICATIONS OF MACHINE LEARNING IN OIL AND GAS

Article | March 4, 2020

The issue of environmental sustainability is a major concern for governments and players from the oil and gas industry worldwide. The negative impacts as a result of activities carried out by oil and gas companies have been a major tool not only for the livelihood and health of people but more so to the environment, such as pollution. The risk of environmental pollution, hazards and severity can be and will be reduced with the use of machine learning and deep learning in the years to come. There has been an amazing application in chemical engineering, process safety, process control tuning, advanced dynamic and process optimization. We can see that the Oil and Gas industry when we talk about software especially machine learning solutions didn’t have any innovation in the last 15 years.

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Global polyethylene demand boom likely, increasing the sustainability challenge

Article | June 15, 2021

IT FEELS LIKE several lifetimes ago. If you recall, way back in November-December 2019 Asian variable cost integrated naphtha-based polyethylene (PE) margins turned negative because of the increase in US capacity. Then in January the following year, deep Asian and Middle East operating rate cuts returned some order to the market. Then, bang, as we all know, the pandemic arrived and turned everything on its head. The pandemic has, in my view, accentuated trends that were already well underway. I believe this means that the supply-driven downturn that started in late 2019 will not return.Long before coronavirus upended everyone’s lives, PE demand was becoming increasingly divorced from GDP growth because of the shifting nature of end-use demand. Booming internet sales was, I believe, a major factor behind the split between the growth of the overall economies in the developed world plus China and PE demand.The average product bought online is dropped 17 times because of the large number of people involved in the logistics chain, according to Forbes. This had led to a surge in demand for protective packaging made not from PE and other polymers such as polypropylene, expandable polystyrene and PET films (I will look at their demand growth prospects in later posts).Despite sustainability pressures, the scale of demand for stuff bought online translated to a lot more consumption of virgin polymers.

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A Coordinated Approach to Chemical Reactivity

Article | March 4, 2020

Atoms are gregarious by nature, escaping a solitary existence by forming chemical bonds with their neighbors. Chemical reactivity, in turn, depends on the degree of atomic “isolation”; a lonely atom will more readily interact and form bonds with others, as compared to its more “coordinated” counterparts that are chemically engaged with other atoms. This coordination concept plays a central role in our understanding of chemical and catalytic activity. What has been lacking to date, however, is a direct and quantitative measurement of the variation in chemical reactivity of atoms having different degrees of coordination.

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Demographics are reshaping petrochemicals trade flows, investment patterns and demand

Article | May 23, 2021

TEN YEARS AGO, fellowblogger Paul Hodgesand Ifirst highlighted the leading rolethat changing demographics would play in reshaping petrochemicals supply and demand. We have been emphasising the importance of demographics ever since. Demographics have, of course, always been a critical shaper of economies throughout human history. But during the last 70 years, there have been such major changes in demographics that the study of demographics must be at the very heart of your company’s strategy. The Babyboomer generation in the West led to a surge in demand as the rapid increase in babies born in the 1950s and early 1960s joined the workforce from the 1970s onwards. This helps explain high levels of inflation during that decade because too much demand was chasing too little supply. Another driver of inflation was the Middle East embargos against oil exports to the West because of the West’s support for Israel. Then came the 1990s and first the integration of Eastern Europe into the global economy. This helped dampen inflationary pressures because of the plentiful supply of workers in the east willing to work for low wages in export-focused factories. This reduced the cost of finished goods in the West. Next came Deng Xiaoping’s critically important“southern tour”in the early 1990s and China’s gradual integration into the global economy. China increasingly leveraged its very youthful population to again make cheap goods to export to the West. Hundreds of millions of young people were willing to migrate from the countryside to China’s coastal cities to work in export-focused manufacturing plants. The world began to talk about the “China price” and how it was further depressing global inflation.

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Spotlight

REQUIMTE- Department of Chemistry

REQUIMTE, is the largest network in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering established in Portugal and is recognized as the Laboratório Associado para a Química Verde by the Portuguese Ministério da Ciência e do Ensino Superior since November 2001. The scientific expertise and complementary knowledge available, put together by the two research centres that form the network (Centro de Química Fina e Biotecnologia-UNL and Centro de Química-UP).

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